They were succeeded by the ceramic age pre-Columbian Arawak-speaking Saladoid people who migrated from the lower Orinoco River.
The Arawaks introduced agriculture, raising, among other crops, the famous Antigua black pineapple (Moris cultivar of Ananas comosus), corn, sweet potatoes, chiles, guava, tobacco, and cotton.
Their descendants still live there, notably in Brazil, Venezuela, and Colombia.Most Arawaks left Antigua around 1100 AD; those who remained were later raided by the Caribs.He summarised the situation as follows: "Public utilities need to be rebuilt in their entirety...It is optimistic to think anything can be rebuilt in six months ...An estimate published by Time indicated that over 0 million would be required to rebuild homes and infrastructure.
Philmore Mullin, Director of Barbuda's National Office of Disaster Services, said that "all critical infrastructure and utilities are non-existent – food supply, medicine, shelter, electricity, water, communications, waste management".
The permanent population numbers about 81,800 (at the 2011 Census) and the capital and largest port and city is St. Lying near each other (the main Barbuda airport is less than 0.5° of latitude, or 30 nautical miles, north of the main Antigua airport), Antigua and Barbuda are in the middle of the Leeward Islands, part of the Lesser Antilles, roughly at 17°N of the equator.
The country's name was given by Christopher Columbus in 1493 after discovering the island, in honor of the Virgin of La Antigua in the Seville Cathedral.
Others believe the reportedly abundant but starchy, low-protein diet may have contributed to their severe malnutrition as they were used to a diet fortified with protein from the sea.
The Spaniards did not colonise Antigua because it lacked fresh water but not aggressive Caribs.
The country is nicknamed "Land of 365 Beaches" due to the many beaches surrounding the islands.